Exercise Equipment

The ‘Household Items’ Total-Body Workout

Dumbbells, resistance bands, medicine balls — these pieces of exercise equipment can be great for helping you work out at home, but you don’t have to spend a penny on equipment (or try to find a place for it), to craft an effective at-home workout routine.

Rather, it’s important to remember that fancy pieces of exercise equipment are simply ways to load, or weight, the body. And if you take a look around your home, you are bound to have a wide array of possible loads, or weights, available to you, says Justin Kompf, a Boston-based certified strength and conditioning specialist. Recently, he has seen his training clients get incredibly creative with their loads, even going as far as to attach filled backpacks to a broom to create a makeshift barbell. Others have had their kids climb on their backs.

While you can certainly give those ideas a try, you’ll also be glad to know that building your own exercise equipment doesn’t have to be quite that involved, or intense.

To get the endorphin and creative juices flowing, get started with this total-body workout that you can perform using things that you likely have sitting around the house.

— Suspension-sheet squat to row.

— Laundry-detergent chest press.

— Duffel-bag deadlift.

— Towel slider lunge.

— Book shoulder raise.

Suspension-sheet squat to row

If you’ve ever performed a squat to row with TRX straps or other suspension trainers, you know that it’s highly effective at training the glutes and quads as well as back and biceps. It’s a choice squat variation for anyone with knee aches or pains, Kompf adds. Because the suspension squat involves sitting back, not just down, with each rep, it reduces stress placed on the knees.

That said, a sheet (or towel) is all you really need to make your own suspension-training system at home. Simply loop the length of the fabric around a pole or other sturdy anchor point at torso height. Alternatively, you can tie a knot in the middle of a sheet, then close a door onto the sheet with the knot on one side of the door and the ends on the other side. The knot will act like a “stopper” to keep the sheet secure during the exercise.

Instructions:

— Grab both ends of the sheet, bend your elbows to hold the ends at your sides, and step back until the fabric is taut.

— Stand with your feet between hip- and shoulder-width apart, and brace your core.

— Sit back as if there’s a chair behind you and simultaneously extend your arms, keeping the cloth taut at all times for balance.

— Lower as far as comfortably possible, pause, then drive through your heels to stand back up, pulling the cloth back to your sides to help you row your body back to standing. That’s one rep.

— Do three to four sets of eight to 12 reps.

Laundry-detergent chest press

When it comes to strengthening the chest, pushups are an at-home workout staple. But if you’re not able to perform many reps while maintaining stellar form — or you just want to isolate your chest and triceps without having to hold a plank throughout the entire exercise — doing a lying chest press can be a useful option, Kompf says.

To load this move, you can use one heavy or two medium-weight objects, he says. This example uses laundry detergent, but old milk jugs filled with water (so as to not spoil your fresh milk), wine bottles or a sealed bag of rice or potatoes can all work equally well. If you have limited grip strength and run the risk of dropping wine bottles or potato sacks, choose a weight that has handles, like the detergent bottle or milk jug, advises Cassey Ho, FitOn trainer and American Council on Exercise-certified instructor.

Instructions:

— Lie on your back with your feet flat on the floor and hold the laundry detergent bottle against your chest with both hands.

— Brace your core and press the load straight up toward the ceiling.

— Pause, then slowly bend your elbows to return to start. That’s one rep.

— Do three to four sets of eight to 12 reps.

[See: 6 Exercises Women Should Do Every Day.]

Duffel-bag deadlift

A deadlift amounts to nothing more than picking a dead weight up off of the floor — and you undoubtedly have lots of those lying around.

You can perform this exercise with any dead weight, but because this exercise represents one of the body’s naturally strongest movement patterns, the below instructions detail how to perform the exercise with a duffel bag. That way, you can more easily get the bag to a heavy weight; fill it with dense, heavy items, like books, for the greatest challenge.

Instructions:

— Fill a duffel bag to the fullness and weight that’s right for you. (If in doubt, go lighter; you can always add more weight later.)

— Stand with your feet hip-width apart and the bag positioned between your feet.

— Brace your core and while keeping a flat back, push your hips back behind you to lower your torso until you are able to reach the bag with your arms extended. If the bag has straps, grab hold of them. You can also grip the side of the bag.

— Drive through your feet to forcefully stand back up with the bag in front of your thighs at arm’s length. That’s one rep.

— Do four to five sets of six to eight reps.

Towel slider lunge

To make an exercise more challenging, adding more weight isn’t always the answer. For example, by using a towel as a slider, bodyweight exercises like lunges become much more intense, Ho says. That’s because sliding into each rep eliminates much of your ability to use momentum and can also slow down your movements to increase muscle activation and benefit.

She explains that small towels or wash cloths work best as sliders on slick floor surfaces like hardwood or tile; if you are trying to slide on carpet, try swapping the towel for one or two paper plates.

Appliances

Shop the Memorial Day appliance sales happening right now

Memorial Day is a time to honor those who gave their lives in service to the country, but this weekend is also a great time to relax, recharge and, of course, save big. And it’s a particularly great time to shop for appliances, with everything from dishwashers to air fryers marked way down for the holiday. Whether you’re looking to do a full kitchen refresh for the summer or just need some new gadgets to make cooking and cleaning easier, check out our top picks for Memorial Day appliance sales below.

And if you’re looking for even more sales, we’ve also rounded up more than 200 of the best deals to shop this weekend.

Wayfair

Wayfair is offering up to 65% off appliances large and small through May 28.

Tons of kitchen gadgets are marked down, including this adorable Daewoo Retro countertop microwave ($82.99, originally $109.99; wayfair.com). KitchenAid’s Ultra Power 5 Speed Hand Mixer ($49.99, originally $71; wayfair.com) is perfect for baking projects, while more serious bakers might want to consider upgrading to KitchenAid’s Classic Plus 10 Speed Stand Mixer ($219.99, originally $349.99; wayfair.com), which comes with a dough hook.

Big-ticket items like refrigerators and dishwashers are marked down, too, as are products designed to keep you cool as the weather heats up.

AJ Madison

The appliance giant is offering Memorial Day savings of up to 50%, plus free delivery across the country on orders over $599.

Save more than $400 on Frigidaire’s Gallery Series Dishwasher ($543, originally $949; ajmadison.com), which automatically adjusts cycle times based on how dirty your dishes are. For anyone in need of some extra fridge space these days, Fridgidaire’s highly rated 30-inch Freestanding Top Mount Refrigerator ($799, originally $1,049; ajmadison.com) is marked down as well, and features a reversible door, clear dairy bin and a shelf large enough for full gallon-sized beverages. You can also save on gas and electric rangesmicrowaves and air conditioners.

Best Buy

Best Buy’s Memorial Day sale includes tons of appliance markdowns, all of which come with the company’s price match guarantee. You can also get free shipping on major appliance purchases over $399.

For those in need of a home laundry upgrade, save $340 on Samsung’s Activewash High-Efficiency Top-Loading Washer ($649.99, originally $989.99; bestbuy.com) and Extra-Large Capacity Fingerprint Resistant Electric Dryer ($649.99, originally $989.99; bestbuy.com). The high-rated Dyson V8 Animal Cord-Free Stick Vacuum ($299.99, originally $399.99; bestbuy.com) is a great pick for cleaning up after that foster pet keeping you company while you socially distance. Top-rated refrigerators are marked down as well, including Samsung’s 25.5-cubic-foot french door model ($999.99, originally $1,599.99; bestbuy.com). The fridge comes with a filtered ice maker and has an average of 4.5 stars from more than 1,000 reviews.

Small appliances are on sale, too, including some great options from Ninja. Ninja’s Toaster Oven with Air Fryer ($209.99, originally $229.99; bestbuy.com) is a solid pick to cook and/or crisp up foods without waiting for a full-size oven to preheat.

Electronics

How COVID-19 Has Impacted the Electronics Supply Chain

The global outbreak of COVID-19, the illness induced by the novel coronavirus, was bound to put stress on the supply chain. Of the industries impacted, electronics ranks among the most important—and potentially the most difficult to put right again. As of June 2, 2020, nearly every country in the world has reported coronavirus cases, with 371,000 deaths out of more than 6 million total confirmed cases.

The electronics supply chain was already in the throes of disruption before the outbreak. The tariff war between the United States and China forced the relocation of some high-profile electronics manufacturers from China to to Southeast Asia, including GoPro, Kyocera and Nintendo moving manufacturing to Vietnam, as well as Casio, Daikin and Ricoh shifting operations to Thailand.

This year could have been a year of recovery for the electronics industry. Instead, it is filled with new challenges that threaten to significantly stem the flow of critical electronics and impact the introduction of new products for many months to come. Here’s a look at how the sector has been affected and how companies are answering the challenge.

The Impact on Electronics Is an Evolving Situation

IPC is a trade organization dedicated to advocacy, education and support for the electronics industry. The group’s 5,400 member companies come from all backgrounds, including electronics designers, assemblers, suppliers, and PCB manufacturers and OEMs. IPC was one of the fastest out of the gate to start supplying up-to-date insights into the evolving COVID-19 situation.

In March, IPC conducted a survey of its members to better understand the impact of the outbreak on electronics manufacturers. Here are the most significant highlights of what they found:

  • Around 69% of respondents said they had received warnings from their suppliers about shipment delays. The average delay in March was three weeks, which has held steady since February.
  • However, 15% of respondents said in March that they had been told to expect delays of at least six weeks. In February, no company had yet been quoted a six-week delay.
  • Executives are even less optimistic than the average three-week delay indicated by suppliers. Surveyed electronics executives said they expected five-week delays on average.
  • Most the companies polled said they “expect” their supply chains and businesses would be “back to normal” by July 2020. About 75% of respondents expect to return to normal operations by October 2020, while 25% said it is too early to make a prediction.
  • The most widely impacted sector within electronics manufacturing and distribution is consumer electronics, followed closely by automotive and industrial electronics.
  • Most of the respondents (56%) said they expect to report declines in sales through the first quarter of 2020 and 63% said they anticipate flagging sales through the second quarter. Around 62% of company representatives said they were bracing for a sales slump in 2020.

As the coronavirus started spreading throughout China in early 2020, the country curtailed both manufacturing output and travel, meaning factories were effectively shut down for several weeks. As a result, China’s Manufacturing Purchasing Manager’s Index—a measurement of the health of the manufacturing sector based on new orders, output, employment, delivery times and other factors—fell to its lowest level since the index was rolled out in 2004.

One discrepancy to point out— between estimates of shipping delays and the “actual” delays anticipated by electronics executives— comes down to two major factors, both of which are impacted by the fallout from the novel coronavirus.

These are manufacturing capacity and utilization. Brief periods of low utilization of existing manufacturing capacity and infrastructure can cause short-term financial hardship. However, if the disruption clears quickly, companies can bring their output back up over time to pre-disruption benchmarks.

COVID-19 has caused a significant and protracted drop in manufacturing utilization, however. Travel bans and facility closures kept workers out of their factories before and since the Chinese New Year on January 25, 2020.

And even the companies that resumed production did so in a limited capacity due to the scarcity of labor. For a long time, China’s manufacturing utilization remained far below pre-coronavirus figures because of ongoing labor shortages and skeleton crews.

Deloitte has identified several less-immediately-obvious impacts brought by COVID-19 as well. It is not just the day-to-day operations of a supply chain that are being affected. It is also the overall “velocity” of the value chain. Board and systems manufacturers have become a noticeable bottleneck as the pandemic continues, meaning there may be stock available but that it could have no way to reach its destination due to the lockdown.

It is not just electronics parts and finished products that are affected, but also products that are critical to their manufacture, such as steel baskets for cleaning and curing printed circuit boards. Every link in the electronics manufacturing value and supply chain is feeling the effects of limited travel for personnel and product.

According to Deloitte, coronavirus is creating less immediate but potentially much longer-term disruptions to the value chain. Design decisions, new product launches, and time-to-market are all being impacted due to reduced internal meetings and lost opportunities to collaborate closely with outside business partners.

How Are Electronics Manufacturers Coping?

Without a vaccine available, the only viable method for “flattening the curve” and stopping the spread of COVID-19 is aggressive restrictions on social gatherings and travel and the closure of all but the most essential industrial sites. Sony Electronics, Dell Computers, Square, VMware and others have had to withdraw their 2021 forecasts due to the ongoing uncertainty presented by COVID-19.

In Sony’s case, the company had been focused on geographically distributing its most important facilities long before COVID-19 started to upend business around the world. And even that was far from enough.

The Japanese company not only had to shut down manufacturing plants in China and Malaysia—creating an unstable-at-best flow of parts and resources from Asia—but also a manufacturing plant in the UK. That closure lasted until late April.

Most of the respondents to the IPC survey (55%) indicated they were actively seeking alternative sources for components and materials, while about 54% said they were restricting business travel. Another 30% of the IPC members said they were encouraging or mandating telecommuting to help keep their workforce healthy and maintain forward momentum.

Deloitte outlines some of the other steps that companies can take to restart their operations. They divide these into three main categories:

  • Tactical actions: Rolling out travel restrictions and work-from-home policies hurts in the short term, but it helps to safeguard employees and raises the chances that they are healthy once the outbreak wanes. Tactical actions also include expanding paid-time-off hours and understanding the risks of allowing visitors into offices and production plants.
  • Operational actions: When factory closures are not mandatory, reducing output or shutting down a location may be the most logical thing a company can do. Electronics manufacturers and suppliers may need to push out product launches and discuss new schedules with customers. They may also have to find alternative sources for materials and parts, potentially looking to nations that have been quicker to contain the outbreak.
  • Managerial actions: Managers should consider creating “war rooms” to monitor the situation in real-time since it continues to evolve. Executives must also need to perform risk assessments, draw up procedures for hiring and plans for managing their workforce to quickly bring operations back to where they were before the outbreak.

In the end, it is not possible to anticipate an event like this and hammer out a perfect plan. The most important takeaway for electronics companies is to honestly address the risks of geographical concentration. Such a model constitutes a “single point of failure,” like the back-to-back earthquake and tsunami which hit Japan in 2011. At the time, around 60% of critical parts in the global automotive marketplace were produced there.

That event caused some companies to reevaluate the short-term benefits of geographical concentration against the long-term benefit of more flexible supply chains. COVID-19 represents a reckoning for companies that have not learned this lesson yet—and an opportunity for those that did.

A Year of Recovery

Every company in the global electronics supply chain hoped, and had many reasons to believe, that this would be a year of recovery after last year’s downturn. Trade tensions and new tariffs between China and the United States have caused uncertainty, closures, and lost profits. Many hoped that 2020 would bring a rebound. But COVID-19 had different plans for the global electronics trade.

As the sector fights to return to normal throughout 2020, this downturn can also be seen as an opportunity. Some lessons only need to be learned once — and one is the value of geographical diversity. Every country on earth is feeling the effects of coronavirus, but not necessarily to the same degree. Globalization is a controversial subject, but it appears now that the companies with the strongest sense of global citizenship and commitment to diverse value and supply chains could be the first to find their footing again.

Tablets

The best kids tablet for 2020: Apple iPad, Amazon Fire and more compared

A child’s first tablet is a gateway to endless educational apps and kid-friendly content (including the vast selections on YouTube Kids), but you have a choice on what you’d like to spend. You can head straight for the iPad or consider a more affordable option, such as the Amazon Fire tablets that are made just for kids.

It’s easy to see why kids gravitate to tablets, which can be as easily loaded with educational content and apps. Not only can kids read books, play an educational game, watch movies and listen to music, but they can also learn the basics of using a computer and even learn how to code on a kid tablet.

When you’re looking for the best tablet for kids, it’s important to consider the durability, affordability, battery life and lifespan for a child-friendly tablet before actually buying it. Since children tend to be a little more clumsy and unusually sticky, it’s a good idea to invest in a child’s tablet with a sturdy construction or a durable case that can protect a delicate glass screen against any drops or scratches. Most kids don’t need top-of-the-line features, either. 

With that in mind, it may be best to avoid pricey premium tablets like the iPad Pro and Surface Pro. (It would be a particular type of heartbreak to watch an Apple iPad shatter on the ground.) Many kid-friendly tablets even give robust parental control options that let parents monitor the amount of screen time and the content children can access. Whether you’re purchasing a children’s tablet for an older child, younger kids or a little one, you’re sure to find the a great tablet among our picks for the best tablet for kids.

Amazon Fire HD 10 Kids Edition

The Fire HD 10 Kids Edition is the kid-friendly version of the  Amazon Fire HD 10 with the largest display in the lineup of Amazon tablet options. Just like its 7- and 8-inch siblings, this Fire tablet features a ton of parental control options and a rubberized bumper case to protect the device against drops. This 10-inch Amazon Fire tablet also includes a two-year “no questions asked” replacement warranty and a one-year subscription to FreeTime Unlimited, a content library that gives kids access to plenty of age-appropriate videos, books, games and apps. 

Amazon Fire HD 8 Kids Edition

The Amazon Fire HD 8 Kids Edition is two inches smaller and $70 cheaper than the 10-inch version of the kids’ tablet, but it includes the same bundle of parental controls, rubberized bumper case to protect the device, two-year worry-free replacement warranty and a one-year subscription to FreeTime Unlimited. Compared to the Kids Edition of the Fire 7, the HD 8 Kids tablet is $30 more, but it’s packed with a higher-resolution screen, faster performance and more storage, making it a worthwhile upgrade.

Amazon Fire 7 Kids Edition Tablet

Priced at $100, the Amazon Fire 7 is the most budget-friendly option out of the lineup of Kids Edition Amazon tablets. It does a decent job at most tasks and apps and includes the same bundle of parental controls, padded case, a two-year warranty and a one-year subscription to FreeTime Unlimited.

Apple iPad (9.7-inch, 2018)

When it comes to tablets, Apple’s iPad definitely has the more recognizable name, and in-app purchases are easy on an iPad. However, handing over an iPad with endless apps to a child can be a nerve-racking experience considering that high iPad price tag. Compared to Amazon’s Kids Edition tablets, an iPad offers the versatility to adapt to a growing kid’s changing needs in a tablet. The 2018 entry-level iPad offers all the benefits and smooth performance of an iPad at a more affordable price. 

Mobile Devices

Parents are often clueless about their young children’s use of mobile devices, study finds

Almost three-quarters of parents misjudge how much time their preschoolers spend on smartphones and tablets, according to a study published in the journal Pediatrics.

The study also suggests that many parents are frequently clueless about the content their young children are accessing through those mobile devices.

The data for the study was collected before the coronavirus pandemic, which has led many parents to relax their rules about screen time. The findings may therefore be even more applicable today.

“We found that most parents miscalculated their children’s time on mobile devices. They may also not be aware of what content is being shared or what apps are being marketed to children while they’re using their devices,” says Dr. Jenny Radesky, the study’s lead author and a developmental behavioral pediatrician and researcher at the University of Michigan, in a released statement.

Surveys have shown that up to 75 percent of young children have their own tablets, and many also play games or watch videos on their parents’ smartphones. Attempts to assess whether the excessive use of these devices has an effect on children’s health (such as sleep problems, obesity or problem behaviors) have been limited by a lack of precise ways to measure that use. Researchers have had to rely on parents’ recall of their child’s use, but those reports can be inaccurate.

To overcome that problem for the current study, Radesky and her colleagues developed an app that uploaded mobile usage information from Android devices to a secure database. They also developed a system by which parents with Apple devices could send screenshots of their devices’ data to the researchers. In both cases, names were masked, and no personal information was collected.

“We wanted to develop an approach to more accurately and objectively measure young children’s use of mobile technology,” explains Radesky.

Study details

The researchers recruited 350 families with preschoolers (children aged 3 to 5) to take part in the study. The children’s parents agreed to let the researchers track and collect their child’s mobile device data for nine months during 2018-2019. The parents also completed a questionnaire in which they estimated the amount of time their preschoolers spent with mobile devices.

The usage data revealed that the 121 preschoolers in the study with their own smartphone or tablet averaged two hours of viewing a day. Almost 60 percent of them averaged an hour or more a day, and 15 percent averaged four or more hours a day.

The children played with the devices on most days, picking them up about four times per day, on average. They used them the longest on Fridays and Saturdays. A few played with them far into the night — as late as 3 or 4 a.m. Most of those middle-of-the-night viewings involved YouTube sites.

The researchers then compared the data from the parents’ estimates with the children’s actual use. More than a third of the parents (36 percent) underestimated the amount of time their preschooler spent with a smartphone or tablet. Interestingly, another third (35 percent) overestimated the time. Parents in both groups tended to be off by an average of 70 minutes.

Individual preschoolers accessed between one and 85 apps during the course of the study. The most commonly played apps were YouTube, YouTube Kids and streaming video services such as Netflix. The children also frequently used web browsers and the camera and photograph gallery features on the devices.

Some of the preschoolers, however, accessed apps aimed at teens and adults, including gambling apps such as Cashman and violent apps such as Terrorist Shooter and Fortnite. These viewings usually occurred on devices the children shared with other family members.

“We were surprised to find that some of the content these young children were exposed to were for ages 17 and older,” says Radesky.

“Parents may have the misconception that children are always engaging with programs that are more age appropriate or educational,” she added.

Limitations and implications

The study comes with important caveats. Most notably, it couldn’t identify the actual user of devices the preschoolers shared with others. Also, the study had a relatively high level of attrition, and the parents who stayed in the study to its end tended to be more highly educated and less racially and ethnically diverse than the general U.S. population.

In addition, parents in the study were aware that their child’s mobile device usage was being tracked, a factor that may have changed how they permitted their child to use the devices.

Still, the study offers a more objective measure of young children’s mobile device usage than previous research that relied on the reports of parents.

What should parents do to make sure their children’s use of mobile devices is age-appropriate?

“Have some boundaries about when and where the tablet can be used, carve out time for open-ended activities and social interaction with the family and poke your head in to see what your child is watching,” Radesky told CCN reporter Sandra LaMotte.

“Try playing a few of the games, and if they are inappropriate, uninstall them. Google Family Link and Apple Screen Time both allow parent controls, too,” she added.

Radesky also pointed out that parents can monitor their child’s YouTube viewing by checking the viewing history or by looking at the Screen Time app usage monitor.

PC & Laptops

The Pandemic has made it harder to buy a new laptop

The new 13-inch MacBook Pro hit shelves on May 4th. Kate Kozuch, a journalist, ordered one to replace her old, broken 2015 model. She was confused by the different add-ons and configuration options — “The numbers hurt my brain,” she told The Verge. But after much research, she finally settled on one.

When it came time to check out, however, Kozuch realized she might have to wait much longer than she’d hoped. Apple estimated that her unit would arrive between May 26th and June 2nd. It didn’t take quite that long, but it still took longer than anticipated. Kozuch got her MacBook on May 18th — two weeks after placing the order.

Robin Gloss, a college student, also ordered the new MacBook on May 26th. She hasn’t received it yet, but it’s supposed to come on June 10th. Gloss isn’t thrilled about having to wait that long; she’s worried that her 2015 MacBook Air will crash before it arrives. “It works, but barely,” she said. “It doesn’t have enough processing power to run the WordPress plugin I need.”

BJ Adams ordered a 15-inch HP Spectre x360 on May 3rd as a desktop replacement. HP said it would ship on May 29th, and arrive on June 4th. On June 1st, Adams asked for an update; the arrival date is now June 23rd.

Adams was so irritated that he considered canceling the order and going to Best Buy. “HP is doing bad,” he complained. “They need to get out of the laptop business.”

If you, like Gloss, Adams, and Kozuch, have shopped for a new laptop in the past few months and been met with multiweek shipping estimates and out-of-stock signs, you are not alone. Retail analytics firm Stackline found that in recent weeks, traffic to laptop product pages has grown 100 to 130 percent (year over year). Conversion rates (that is, the proportion of visitors to laptop product pages who actually purchase), conversely, have plummeted; they’re normally around 3 percent, but in mid-May they hit an all-time low of 1.5 percent. In other words: people are looking for laptops more, but they’re having trouble finding products in stock to actually purchase.

That’s because the COVID-19 pandemic has put two unique pressures on laptop manufacturers: higher demand and lower supply.

Sayon Deb, senior analyst at the Consumer Technology Association, says that outbreaks hit laptop manufacturers the hardest in the first few months of 2020, when cities across China were in lockdown. “Somewhere around the end of February was the last batch of shipments,” Deb said, referring to units coming to the US from Asia. “Around mid-February was when production was spinning down. It ground to a halt.”

hina’s lockdowns and quarantines have eased over the past few months — around 75 percent of the country was back at work by the end of March, according to McKinsey. But shortages continued, and even as supply chains ramp up again, it’s hard to say when they’ll be back at full capacity.

That’s partially due to the time it takes to transport laptop parts to manufacturing facilities. OEMs ship some components from outside of China, and those (due to their size) commonly travel by air. Gartner analyst Mikako Kitagawa estimates that around half of that cargo usually comes on commercial flights. The pandemic hasn’t been kind to those modes of transportation; countries around the world have restricted air travel, and airline capacity has crunched. Delta reduced its flights by 40 percent in March due to plummeting demand, while the International Air Transport Association projected that airlines could see between an 11 and 19 percent loss in global passenger revenues through the end of this year.